This course specifies the outcomes required to undertake Work Health and Safety (WHS) induction training within the construction industry.
It requires the ability to demonstrate the basic principles of risk management and prevention of injury and illness in the construction industry, and the awareness of WHS legislative requirements.
The assessment for this unit will be in four parts to cover all the elements and performance criteria for this unit.
Time for studying the manual and doing exam is up to 4 hours. It does include a short video and phone call verification assessment.
You will require Hard hat, hearing protection, safety glasses and Hi-viz vest. If you don’t have these or can't borrow them they are available to purchase from Bunnings, hardware or safety stores for around $25
Person conducting a business or undertaking (PCBU): a business or an undertaking that is either conducted alone or with others, whether or not for profit or gain. A PCBU can be:
Worker: employees, contractors, subcontractors, outworkers, apprentices and trainees, work experience students, volunteers and PCBUs who are individuals if they perform work for the business.
Officer: for a corporation, partnership or unincorporated association is as defined in section 9 of the Corporations Act 2001 (Cth), and includes a person:
Due diligence: emphasises the corporate governance responsibilities of officers. Officers of corporations and unincorporated bodies will need to show that they have taken reasonable steps.
Health and safety representative (HSR): a worker who has been elected by a work group to represent them on health and safety issues.
Reasonably practicable: means that which is, or was at a particular time, reasonably able to be done to ensure health and safety, taking into account and weighing up all relevant matters including:
All workers including building and construction industry workers have a role to play to ensure that people are safe at work. The building and construction industry is constantly changing. The environment, hazards and risk levels constantly as work progresses on the site and as workers move from one project to another.
Workers need to be fully informed of their role and hazards in the work place. To achieve this, workers need to participate in three distinct induction processes.
Please continue onto the next section.
This legislation is structured to keep everyone in the workplace safe. The structure consists of the Act, Regulations, Codes of Practice, Standards and guidance notes. The most important aspects of the legislation are the Duty of Care obligations of all parties in the workplace.
All states in Australia have work health and safety legislation that requires the employer to provide a workplace that as far as practicable, employees are not exposed to hazards.
In WA the Act is known as the Occupational Safety and Health Act 1984.
Compliance is Compulsory with the Act.
Not only does the employer and employees have obligations under the Act but manufactures, suppliers and contractors have obligations, in-fact everyone in the workplace has a duty of care to themselves and every person in the workplace. The Act promotes consultation and cooperation between all parties in the workplace.
The regulations are designed to support the Act and provide details to help the employer and employee to meet their obligation to comply with the Act. Compliance is compulsory with the regulations.
These are documents that are usually developed by the health and safety authorities to assist employers and employees to comply with the Act and Regulations. Codes of practice offer sound advice and recommendations so legal obligations set out in the Act and Recommendations can be met. Some industry bodies also develop their own codes of practice. Compliance is not legally binding however Codes of Practice can be used in court to highlight that the employer could have done more to meet the requirements under the Act and Regulations.
These provide advice and guidance and set a benchmark or minimum standard that should be met in relation to a particular topic. Compliance is not compulsory unless they are mentioned in the regulations. There are two main types of standards, National Standards developed by the Australian Safety Compensation Council (ASCC) and Australian Standards developed by Standards Australia.
You need to know the WHS legislation that covers your job and workplace. Also to know yours and others legal responsibilities relating to WHS in your workplace.
This is the most important aspect of the legislation - the duty of care obligations of all parties in the workplace. It requires a person to do everything reasonably possible to protect themselves and others from harm. These are some of the obligations of the three groups.
All contractors to the site have the same obligations as everyone else at the site. These obligations include not putting themselves at risk or that puts any other person at risk.
As far as practicable manufacturers and suppliers must design, manufacture, construct and supply plant and equipment so that people who use it in the workplace are not exposed to hazards . To ensure that plant is installed or erected so that it can be used safely. This means that the equipment provided must be safe to use. Example: if you hire a machine, it must be in a serviceable condition and safe to use.
To meet your WHS obligation you need to comply with safe working practices to protect yourself and your fellow workers. Safe work practices include:
In 2016 there were 35 work related deaths in the construction industry in Australia. They represented 19% of all work related deaths.
The number of workers in the construction industry has grown by 33% over the last 11 years. Within the construction industry 76% of workers were classed as employees and were covered by workers’ compensation schemes.
Compared to other industries, the construction industry has a consistently higher average of Lost Time Injuries and Diseases (LTI/Ds)
Industry has identified a number of workplace hazards (common to all industries) that result in the highest number of injuries and diseases.
These are referred to as priority areas and are:
Some objectives of the Act are to prevent death, injury or illness being caused by the workplace. This can be achieved by effective hazard management systems very useful tool is the IACR process
The IACR process is a four stage process
Step 1 Identify the Hazard (s)
Step 2 Assess the Risk
Step 3 Control the Hazard (s)
Step 4 Review and Evaluate
SAM- Spot the hazard, Assess the Risk, Make the Changes
The effective identification of hazards is the most important step of the process. Without effective identification of hazards there can be no effective risk assessment or risk control.
Risk is the probability of a hazard causing injury.
Identifying hazards need to be assessed to determine how serious they are. Assessing the risk allows decisions to be made about which hazard needs to be controlled and set out priorities for the introduction of controls to be used. When assessing the risk, controls that are already in place need to be considered.
Deciding on the level of risk the following must be considered:
For every hazard identified, ask yourself the question “What If this happens?”. Reasonably what would be the worst likely outcome from contact to the hazard? (Catastrophic to Insignificant)?
Consider the likelihood of harm occurring if a person is exposed to the hazard. This could range from almost certain to rare.
Considering the best method of control for the hazard decides on the following:
There are a number of ways to control risk. These are collectively known as the hierarchy of control and their order is indicated by their effectiveness.
The highest and most effective control. Remove the hazard completely. This could include stopping the use of a hazardous chemical or changing the way you do a job to avoid danger.
To replace a hazardous item or procedure with one that is less hazardous. For example replacing lead based paint with water based paint.
Minimizing the chance of danger or harm by preventing access. Erecting barricades, physical barriers or distance isolation.
Where hazards cannot be controlled by other means, a safe workplace can be created by development of effective guards, ventilation, barricades
Examples of admin procedures can include regular structured breaks, training, signage or procedural systems such as Job Safety Analysis (JSA) and Safe Work Instruction or Method.
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
PPE provides the last barrier to exposure from a hazard. PPE controls are often used in conjunction with administrative controls. PPE should always be considered as the last form of control
Once the controls have been decided you must identify a person who is responsible to put these controls into operation. This person also needs to monitor the controls to ensure that they are effective, and they don’t bring in other hazards.
These statements provide agreed information to all staff in a work group on safe work practices. They are developed only after a full risk assessment has been completed and after all reasonable risk control measures have been put into place. They are similar to a JSA- Job Safety Analysis
This is a systematic approach to a job or task that identifies hazards, enabling them to be assessed and develop a way of doing the job or task that eliminates or minimises the risks.
Whenever the JSA is changed or there is a change of persons doing the job, review of the JSA is required.
A JSA should be developed for jobs:
Extreme care must be taken when working with dangerous substances. Training must be given to all employees who are associated and working with hazardous substances.
Types of substances include- corrosives, solvents, lime, paint, glues, cleaners, fuel including petrol and diesel. All substances have the potential to cause injury or harm. Other substances may cause skin irritations, bring allergic reactions, cause burns, or be highly flammable and therefore need to be segregated from other incompatible substances.
All substances used or produced in the workplace need to be identified; the best method to identify hazardous substances is the Safety Data Sheet or SDS. This used to be called a MSDS-Material Safety Data Sheet
The following should be considered when dealing with hazardous substances:
Storage and segregation
Hazardous substances must NOT be stored under any circumstances in any food grade container e.g.: soft drink or cordial bottles
Use, handling and disposal of hazardous substances
Safe work procedures must always be followed including the correct use of hazardous substances for the intended purpose, and to prevent swallowing, inhaling or skin contact. Safe procedures are also paramount when disposing of the substance or container. They must not be poured down drains or sewers.
Improper disposal could lead to:
Employers must supply suitable PPE for all employees working with hazardous substances. This may include gloves, respirators and enclosed footwear.
Extreme care must be exercised when working with or near dangerous goods. A prime example is fuel. There are 9 classes of dangerous goods dangerous goods are basically hazardous substances that have been listed as dangerous goods.
Asbestos is a significant killer of workers in Australia. Never attempt to remove asbestos without the correct training and PPE. Asbestos is generally safe if not disturbed and can be found in many areas including ceilings, wet areas, floor tiles, and pipes, glues, insulating materials and fencing products. If you believe that there is asbestos in the area that you are working, stop work and seek immediate guidance from your supervisor.
Are of particular importance as they provide much needed information in the event of an emergency. Placards provide information such as who to call and information on the identification of the substance other information includes:
Where hazards cannot be eliminated by other means it is a requirement of occupational and safety legislation that all employees wear personal protective equipment in working environments
There are 4 times when you must wear PPE:
There are Australian/NZ Standards in place for most items of PPE and all PPE provided by the employer must meet this standards
Safety helmets must be worn in all designated areas. They are a very important part of the safety equipment provided to you.
You should inspect your helmet prior to each use for cracks and any damage and ensure that it is fitted and adjusted correctly. These should be no older than three years.
You should never wear a helmet following an impact. Never put stickers on your helmet unless the glue has been tested not to damage to the helmet. Don’t write on your helmet with permanent marker pens/spray paint as they can adversely affect the plastic of the helmet and never modify your helmet in any way.
There are various types of eye protection available and it is important that the correct type is used. Eye protection is a major consideration especially when working in dusty or windy environments or when using power tool. Eye protection must comply with standards particularly AS/NZS 1337 and AS/NZS 1338.
Noise induced hearing loss is a major health and safety concerning the building and construction industry and is one of the least considered risks in the workplace.
Short term exposure to loud noise can cause damage to your hearing
There are two main types of hearing protection, ear plugs and ear muffs. When fitting ear plugs particular care must be taken to ensure that the plugs are fitted correctly and the plugs and your hands are clean when fitting. Dirty hands or plugs can result in ear infections.Ear muffs should be clean and precautions should be taken to ensure they fit correctly and are maintained prior to use.
A good “rule of thumb” to indicate when you need to wear hearing protection is:
‘If you need to raise your voice to understand a person standing at 1 metre or arms length due to the environmental noise, the noise level may be 85DB or above and hearing protection should be worn’.
Safety Footwear must have non slip tread and be well maintained, worn with securely tied laces or be elastic sided and must be worn at all times in designated areas.
Steel capped boots provides protection against heavy items being dropped on feet, stubbed toes, stepping on nails or sharp objects. Safety footwear comes in the form of full ankle support boots or may look like an average dress shoe.
All gloves must be appropriate for the job and fit correctly. There are many types of hand protection available from disposable gloves to heavy industrial gloves. Loose gloves can catch on items and reduce handling ability. Tight gloves can restrict movement. Gloves should be easily removed in case of injury. Poorly fitting or inappropriate types for the purpose can contribute to hand fatigue
Overalls, reflective or Hi Vis vests, wet weather jackets and pants are all protective clothing. Body contour fitting clothing is very important so it can not become caught in any machinery that has moving parts. Loose clothing may be suitable when working outside in high temperatures to protect the skin from the sun and to allow airflow.
Wearing jewellery including rings and chains can present a significant danger in relation to machinery and moving objects.
This is protection against dust, fumes, smoke and fibres that could be detrimental to your health. There are many types of respiratory protection, the most common being the dust mask, which filters out airborne particles before they are inhaled. These are generally used against nuisance dusts that are not deemed toxic but can upset respiratory function. It is crucial the equipment is well maintained and replaced when necessary and appropriate for the type of hazard you are trying to guard against and the equipment complies with the correct standard and MSDS.
Using this cream helps prevent the suns rays penetrating the skin. Sunlight contains ultraviolet (UV) radiation which causes premature aging of the skin, wrinkles, eye damage (including cataracts), and skin cancer. The amount of damage from UV exposure depends on the UV radiation levels (which can range from low to extreme), the length of the exposure and whether your skin is protected. There can be high levels even on cool days and you can receive sunburn on a cloudy day. Sun exposure at any age can cause skin cancer. The most dangerous form of skin cancer is melanoma. Australia has the highest rate of skin cancer in the world.
Worker capacity includes fitness, health, skill, experience and motivation.
When prolonged hard work is involved, fitness is the most important factor in worker capacity. Medical conditions may limit, reduce or prevent the person from performing a job effectively.
Things to be aware of: A health change or medical condition that can-
Most workplaces have minimal risk of the transmission of infectious diseases such as HIV, hepatitis or other viruses. Where there is a possibility that workers will be exposed to blood or other bodily fluids, there is a potential for the transmission of viruses. Some activities have an increased risk for example a site cleaner might be exposed to sanitary waste left in a toilet.
You should ensure that:
The most common cause of fatigue is not enough quality sleep. Most people need 7 to 8 hours of unbroken sound quality sleep to be able to function to their potential. Some people can survive satisfactorily with a little less and some people a little more.
We need to be mindful of our level of alertness. Our body has what is called a circadian cycle which assists us to sleep at night time and remain awake in the daytime. As a consequence of this cycle we have reduced periods of alertness. Human alertness is at its lowest between 2am and 6am and between 2pm and 4pm.
One in five major road accidents are related to fatigue. Imagine what possible percentage of workplace injuries and incidents are related to fatigue.
Regular exercise is becoming increasingly important as equipment and technology takes more physical exertion out of workplace activities. You should establish a regular exercise pattern and maintain it as a minimum.
Most people should be aware of the importance of a regular balanced diet. We should avoid greasy foods especially at night and limit or avoid too much coffee, tea or drinks containing caffeine in the evenings.
It is essential that if people smoke they do so in an area that has been designated a smoking area.
Smoking is prohibited in an enclosed workplace, this includes all vehicles. If people are to smoke they MUST adhere to all signs and rules regarding smoking in their workplace.
There are two significant factors regarding smoking:
Overindulgence in alcohol is still one of the major causes of unfitness for work.
The health effects of alcohol are generally known but its consequences for fitness for work not fully appreciated. Alcohol has a severe negative effect on sleep quality, which is essential to fitness for work. Your entitlement to workers compensation benefits may be at risk if any disability you may suffer at work is attributed or relayed to fitness for work linked to excessive alcohol consumption.
It is also important to note that prescribed medication such as anti depressants, painkillers and certain cough medicines can also have an effect on a person such as drowsiness. Employees should ensure they notify the supervisor if taking medication that could affect their ability to do the job safely.
Employees should advise their employer if they are taking any prescription or over the counter medication or any substance that could impair their work performance.
Some organisations require employees to be tested for traces of alcohol and drugs in their system. Testing could be planned for certain days or workers could be chosen at random.
Practising good housekeeping reduces accidents and injuries in the workplace, especially those resulting from slips, trips and falls. Slipping and tripping is a major cause of workplace injury with many accidents resulting in broken bones. They often result in other injuries like falls from heights and can be fatal.
Benefits of a clean and tidy workplace:
Some examples of good housekeeping include:
Remember the golden rules of housekeeping
If you drop it – pick it up
If you dirty it – clean it
If you use it – put it back
Manual handling means any activity requiring the use of force exerted by a person to lift, lower, push, pull, carry or to move, hold or restrain an item.
Manual handling tasks can range from sprains, strains, hernias, cuts and fractures with the most common being back pain.
Manual handling is one of the leading causes of work place injuries.
Injuries can be acute and chronic in nature, the latter being most common.
Injuries that result from a single movement often cause instant pain and suffering. The pain may not become severe for hours after.
Progressive wear and tear caused by repetitive and ongoing manual handling.
It is important to incorporate risk management principles of identification, assessment and control to effectively prevent problems linked to manual handling to reduce the risk of Manual Handling injuries.It is important to follow safe working practices such as storing heavier items on ground level to reduce stretching and bending movements, and using mechanical aids to transport heavy, awkward and bulky items.
Do not twist your body at any time when carrying loads and use your feet to change direction
A confined space is an enclosed or partially enclosed space which is not intended or designed primarily as a workplace, and can have restricted means for entry and exit. It also can have an atmosphere containing potentially harmful levels of contaminants, or an unsafe oxygen level or is of a nature that could contribute to a person in the space being overwhelmed by an unsafe atmosphere of contaminant.
All work carried out in relation to a confined space must conform to AS/NZS 2865 Working in a Confined Space
A confined space may be:
All employees must receive adequate training when working in confined spaces especially when:
Employees should be aware of the associated hazards, control measures and any emergency procedures applicable to confined space.
Employees should undergo regular refresher training to revise their skills and knowledge.
No one should enter a confined space without being trained adequately or without a standby person present immediately outside the confined space area.
All trenches must be barricaded of fenced off to warn people of their location, and to prevent accidental or unauthorised entry. People should not enter areas immediately next to trenches or excavations unless the area is well signed and are authorised to be there.
If the job requires people to work at heights, they must be able to so safely. Types of work where falling from height can occur include:
Contributing factors that may initiate a fall include
Fall arrest/ restraint equipment must e provided to all persons who work where there is a danger of falling from heights. All height safety equipment must be inspected prior to its use and regularly re-checked as required by the relevant Standard and manufacturer's instructions.
When using fall restraint/fall arrest equipment ensure it is secured to anchor points in the work area which are strong enough for the purpose (not to convenient points such as a hand rail).
Anchor attachment points must have a minimum load capacity in accordance with Australian/NZ Standards.
If your fall restraint/fall arrest equipment has been used to arrest a fall it must be checked by a competent person and serviced to manufacturer's specifications or discarded. Worn or damaged equipment must not be used
Scaffolding-Safety considerations for scaffolding include
An unplanned collapse can pose a significant danger to construction workers.
An unplanned collapse can include:
You must ensure before you operate any mobile plant or equipment at site that:
Before you move forward to mobile plant that is or is likely to be in operation you must obtain eye contact with the operator and the operator must clearly indicate that it is safe for you to approach the mobile plant.
When excavation work is to be carried out and buried power cables or gas pipelines could be in the vicinity, their location must be identified and approval must be obtained prior to work commencing and a risk assessment conducted.
Wind gusts can make work environments unpredictable, by varying the stability of the work areas, cause things to fall from above, blow structures over or carry dust and small particles. Other risks include power lines that have come down.
Rain creates wet and slippery conditions that could include slips and falls, and driving accidents due to slippery roadways and electrocution.
Working in extreme cold conditions can cause breathing difficulties and can cause errors due to lower circulation or pain in extremities (hands, feet, ears, etc).
Lightning Where groups spend a great deal of time outdoors, care needs to be taken to minimise the risk of injury from exposure to lightning. Keep a constant look out for thunderstorms and seek a safe location when lightning is imminent. Ask your supervisor about the site safety procedures in place to avoid lightning related injuries.
Weather conditions can have a big impact upon the safety and health of workers, especially in outdoor work environments. Some weather conditions will be immediately obvious such as rain or gusts of wind, others such as exposure to prolonged heat or cold are dangerous and the impact may not be realised until the damage is done.
Workplaces must have safe work practices for whatever situation workers are in and have contingency plans that accommodate changing weather conditions eg- cyclones
Excessive heat is both a health and a safety hazard.
Working in excessive heat conditions can result in a number of adverse health effects, ranging from discomfort to serious illness and even death.
When the body is unable to cool itself by sweating, several heat-induced illnesses such as heat stress or heat exhaustion and the more severe heat stroke can occur, and can result in death.
Working hard in high heat reduces the body's ability to cool itself because the muscles need extra blood thus decreasing the amount of blood available to circulate to the skin and internal organs. Alertness, stamina and productivity are reduced and the body's core temperature and heart rate rise.
Factors that can contribute to heat stress
Symptoms of Heat Stress
Treatment for Heat Stress
Medical conditions such as heart problems, diabetes, hypertension, fever or infections can contribute to heat stress. Some people have conditions, which can make them more susceptible to heat stress.
Contact with energised objects at mains voltages is potentially fatal. It can also cause serious burns from the discharge of electrical energy.
Health effects include muscle spasms, shock, burns, nausea and vomiting, palpitations, heart fibrillation, unconsciousness...
Fatalities caused from the use of electricity occur regularly both in the workplace and in the home.
Fatalities continue to occur because the dangers associated with its use are not well understood.
There is no such thing as a minor electrical shock. They are all serious and potentially fatal Electrical Safety Procedures
Any work performed near overhead power lines is dangerous and requires all personnel to take extreme care at all times. It is very important to consider the risks that are associated with working near overhead power lines. If work in the vicinity of power lines is not carried out in a safe manner the consequences could involve death of workers and/or bystanders.
There are many considerations to keep in mind whilst working near overhead power lines.
It is essential to:
All repairs of electrical equipment must be carried out by persons licensed to do so. This includes repairs to damaged power boards and extension cords
All portable electrical equipment including RCD’s on a building and construction site must be tested and tagged by an electrician or a qualified person in accordance with the Australian /New Zealand Standard.
SAFETY REPRESENTATIVES AND COMMITTEES
Employees have the right to have a workplace occupational safety committee with elected employee representatives and appointed employer representatives. Employees also have the right to elect a safety and health representative. Consultation about safety and health matters is an important part of the Safety Representatives role.
Safety Representatives are elected by the workforce and must complete an accredited course with in the first 12 months of assuming the position.
Appropriately trained Safety Representatives also have the right to issue Provisional Improvement Notices (PIN) if they are of the opinion that there is a contravention to a provision of the Act in the workplace.
Safety and Health Representatives are responsible only for safety and health in the workplace or that part of the workplace that was agreed between the employer and employee delegates before their election.
Workplace health and safety Committees provide an opportunity for employers and representatives of employees to regularly discuss and make decisions about work health and safety issues.
These may include policy development, planning, monitoring programs, emergency procedures, safety and health training, trends in accidents and illness reports, accident investigations and the introduction of new plant or processes in the workplace which may affect the employee’s safety and health The committee may also take part in resolving safety and health disputes.
Workplaces should develop and implement procedures for the resolution of workplace issues. It is vital that this resolution of issues procedure is agreed upon by everyone in the workplace. This information should be communicated to all employees when first starting work, so it is clear to everyone what to do when confronted with a safety issue at the workplace.
Employees can refuse to work providing they have a legitimate reason to believe that continuing to work will risk injury to themselves or any person in the workplace employees must advise the employer of this refusal to work and the reason why they believe the job is unsafe.
The employer should modify the task to make it safe, give the employee another job that is safe or discuss with the employee the reasons why he or she believes the job is unsafe.
The employee should be satisfied that the job is safe before continuing with the task. The employee should also advise fellow employees of the hazard/s
It is important to note that the employees must not leave the workplace without permission of the employer unless the workplace itself is unsafe. The employer should offer the employee reasonable alternative work until the issue is resolved.
There are several types of WHS documents that should be at the workplace. These documents provide information about health and safety information in the workplace and provide a way hazards, incidents and injuries can be reported. You as an employee or subcontractor have a right to inspect these documents in the workplace
Examples of these documents include:
If you are injured at work Workers Compensation (Compo) means that you can receive medical treatment and assistance . All employees have a right to workers compensation.
Workers Compensation will cover you for medical expenses and wages to varying degrees and dependant on your circumstances.
There are defined procedures that you must follow to ensure that you do not jeopardize your entitlement to workers compensation, these include:
In addition to this documentation the employer must ensure that policies and procedure outlining the company’s preferred way of dealing with issues in the workplace is provided to all employees.
These may include a range of topics including:
Policies must be clear and simple detail what the company expects. Procedures should reflect the policy and outline instructions to be followed for achieving the objectives set out in the policy.
Policies and procedures must be well communicated to all employees as employees have a duty of care to ensure that that act in accordance with the set out policies and procedures. For example, if a company has developed a policy to ensure employees wear suitable personal protective equipment such as a helmet or fall protection when working at heights, the employees must follow and practice the safe working procedures. It is also important the company advises all employees of these policies and procedures and ensure the employees fully understand what is required of them.
For policies and procedures to work effectively, commitment is needed from both employers and employees.
All employees must report to their supervisor as soon as practicable any injury or harm to themselves or any other person in the workplace and any potential serious occurrence that in the course of or in connection with their work any situation they believe is a hazard in the workplace.
Accurate and prompt reporting of injuries, serious occurrences and hazards is fundamental to maintaining a safe and healthy workplace.
This report must be in the method indicated in the workplace policies and procedures
The importance of reporting minor injuries
The reporting of all minor injuries is important because many of these injuries have the potential to develop into more serious conditions. Should a minor injury become infected or a mild strain or sprain becomes more painful, medical treatment may be required.
All minor injuries, including those treated from a first aid box, must be reported and all first aid stores usage recorded.
Why report hazards
Reporting hazards, incidents and injuries is vital so that a safe and healthy workplace can be maintained. Reporting can prevent reoccurrence or the development of new hazards, incidents or injuries in the workplace.
Safety signage is designed to draw attention to objects and situations affecting safety and health. Each sign carries the same authority as a direct instruction from your supervisor.
These signs indicate an activity or action that is prohibited. They have a white background and a red ring with a diagonal red line running through it.
These signs place restriction or a limit through use of a number. For example maximum speed or maximum number of people allowed in an Elevated Work Platform (EWP)
These signs indicate instruction that must be carried out. They have a white background with a blue disc.
Warn of a particular hazard or hazardous condition that could be life threatening they have the word danger in white letters on a red oval with a black background
Hazard warning signs
Warn of a particular hazard or hazardous condition that is not likely to be life threatening. They have a yellow background with a black triangle.
Emergency information signs
They are signs indicating the location of emergency related equipment such as first aid kits and emergency exits. They have a green background and white text.
These signs advise the location of fire alarms and fire fighting equipment. They have a red background with white text.
The purpose of tagging and lockout procedures is to ensure that people and equipment are protected from hazards that could happen when:
There are two primary types of tags, personal danger tags and out of service tags. Requirements for use may differ from each workplace so it is important to become familiar with the work site specific procedures and follow them at all times.
In general Out of Service tags
If an employee identifies a piece of equipment that they consider faulty or unsafe to use then they must complete and place on the equipment at the isolation point(s) an out of service tag.
Information on the tag must be filled out correctly providing the persons name, number, date and a description of the fault detected this then should be reported to the supervisor.
The out of service tag should only be removed by the repairer or supervisor
(Authorised person) when they are satisfied that the equipment is safe to use.
In general, personal danger tags
The tag should only removed by the person who put it there in the first instance; and must be provided for each person working on the job (if there are two or more people working together then each are required to fill out a danger tag and each is to appropriately isolate it to the equipment)
Remember: If you’re not working on the job your tag should be removed.
Locks are an additional safeguard for preventing the equipment becoming operational during repair or maintenance and normally are used in conjunction with a personal danger tag.
These tapes are used to barricade areas to prevent access to the area
Hazard Warning Tape
This tape is yellow and black
This tape is red and white
Injuries frequently occur when tools are not maintained or used correctly
Important safety practices include:
Emergency situations can occur at any time and cover a wide range of events including the unexpected.
Emergency situations include:
What is an emergency?
An emergency can be described as “an unforeseen crisis beyond your control that requires immediate action” An emergency presents (or may present) a risk of serious injury or death.
Details of the site specific emergency procedures must be explained to you prior to commencement of work at that particular site. The procedures will include information relating to the contents and location of the first aid kit, what to do in the event of an emergency, who to contact and by what means to contact. These procedures will form part of the overall site specific management plan.
Alarm systems and emergency areas
It is essential that you are familiar with the emergency procedure at your workplace. You must be able to recognise and respond to the alarm, know the escape route and the location of the emergency assembly area and who to report to upon arrival.
The procedure for emergency response will be explained to you prior to commencement of the work.
The key principles of these procedures are:
If you are in contact by phone with emergency services ensure the person at the other end of the telephone is clear on the information that you are providing and that they are taking action upon this information.
An accident in the workplace can be defined as unplanned and unwelcome events that cause personal injury, property damage, and or interruption to work.
In the prevention of accidents in the workplace an important consideration is the interaction of the environment, people and resources
Environment- Problems can occur if the environment is:
People Problems occur when people are:
Resources- Problems occur when resources or equipment are:
Why do we conduct investigations after the accident ?This is extremely important in helping to prevent future accidents.
Investigations are not undertaken to blame, but to discover the causes, so it is unlikely to happen again. Anyone involved in the accident investigation should undertake as soon as possible.
The size of the accident depends on the formation of the team to do the investigation. Those likely to be involved range from the safety and health representative, employer, employees and supervisors.
Investigations may involve surveying the scene, taking photographs, speaking to witnesses and compiling reports.
Ultimately it is important to discover common trends in the causes and events that lead up to the accident so that measures can be taken to prevent the accident reoccurring.
Dust, fumes , oil and other toxic discharges can be damaging to your health and to the environment
The atmosphere is a crucial factor for long term survival and you should make every effort to protect your health and prevent pollution of the environment
The preservation of our water resources is everyone’s responsibility.
Duty of care to the environment is not to allow any substance to be disposed of in drains or be allowed to contaminate any waterway. All substances must be disposed of in accordance with the Safety Data Sheet (SDS)
Failure to prevent accidents can lead to undesirable outcomes such as:
Your PCBU/employer has a legal responsibility to provide adequate First Aid equipment and facilities in the workplace.
This includes access to trained first aiders.
A designated person should be appointed to be in charge of the First Aid kit, they must be ready to provide first aid when necessary.
You should know the name, contact number and workplace location of the first aid officer or person to contact, if you don’t know ASK.
Your worksite should also have a first aid plan that details workplace first aid procedures, and the location of first aid equipment as part of the site specific safety management plan.
From a personal safety point of view and damage to property, fires continue to be a major concern both in the community and in industry plant and equipment. Property losses attributed to fires cost many millions of dollars annually.
Many fires could be prevented by better housekeeping and an increased awareness of the likelihood of a fire when proper safety measures are not taken.
These three factors combined in the right quantity give us a chemical chain reaction or combustion of a fire
The three factors needed to support combustion (FIRE) are:
The key to the reduction or elimination of fires in the workplace is good housekeeping : Reduce risks from chemical spills, cleaning rags, paper, matches and cigarette butts by-
Make sure fire brigade has been called. Before you even consider fighting a fire, you must ensure that all persons in the area are alerted and have left, or leaving. Whether or not you should fight a fire depends on your own safety, as portable fire extinguishers offer only sufficient fire fighting agent to fight a relatively small fire. It may be more effective and safer for you to leave the fire to the fire brigade. If you leave a fire, close off the area as you go. If you do propose to fight a fire:
A Good acronym to remember if you are going to attempt to fight a fire is PASS
DO not attempt to fight a fire if you’re not trained
Above all ensure that you are safe
Fires are classified according to the type of material that is burning. It is essential that you be aware of the type of extinguisher you must use if a fire starts in your workplace.
Common causes of fire on a construction site are:
Fire extinguishers should be placed near to where they may be used. However, they should not be so close that a fire will prevent you from reaching the extinguisher. It is a requirement that extinguishers be clearly visible with an approved indicator sign placed above.
NOTE- Fire extinguishers should be regularly inspected, tested and maintained.
Fire hose reels provide accessible and controlled supply of water in the event of a fire, The length of hose is 36 meters and deliver at least 0.33 litres of water per second, and the control nozzle on the end of the hose controls direction and flow of water to fight a fire
Installation and maintenance is required by Australian Standards
Fire blankets are sheets of glass-fibre material which are fire resistant.
They can be used to wrap around a person whose clothes have caught alight or to try extinguish small fires that have started by cutting off oxygen supply to the fire
Is a device worn by rescue workers, firefighters, and others to provide breathable air in an immediately dangerous to life or health atmosphere.
It is designed to give you clean breathable air from a tank.
You will have a short phone verification we will ask you a few questions- The questions we would like you to think about are:
You are required to make a video using a smart device or web cam of your self correctly fitting the following
WATCH THE VIDEO FOR AN EXAMPLE
Please send the video to 0447 111 103 or firstname.lastname@example.org or insert below by uploading video file
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